“You’re stepping on my shadow, please back off,” she said.

Sun Yisheng / Nicky Harman

Sima Qian: Qu Yuan and the Fisherman

By Brendan O'Kane, published

It's Duanwu Jie 端午节, the Dragon-Boat Festival. If we were in Hong Kong or Taiwan, we'd get a day off. No such luck here, so I'm blogging on my lunch break in honor of the holiday instead.

The Dragon-Boat Festival commemorates the death of 屈原 Qu Yuan, China's first poet. Qu was a minister in the pre-Chinese state of Chu during the 战国 Warring States period, and after arguing for more reasonable policies he was slandered by jealous court insiders and exiled by the king of Chu, to whom he was intensely loyal. Heartbroken, his faith in mankind shaken, Qu dashed off a few more poems and then walked into the Miluo River holding a stone. The dragon boats from which Duanwu Jie gets its English name are supposedly rushing to retrieve his body before it could be eaten by the fish, though in reality it's a separate tradition that just happened to get associated with Qu later on.

Qu is the first poet whose name is known, and there are a few works (particularly 离骚 'On Encountering Trouble' ) that are attributable to him with a fair degree of certainty. Others are traditionally attributed to him but clearly the work of later poets, like the poem 怀沙, 'Embracing Sands,' which Qu supposedly wrote immediately before chucking himself into the river. The great Han-dynasty historian 司马迁 Sima Qian recounts the events leading up to Qu's suicide as follows:

Qu Yuan wandered in his banishment, murmuring poems as he walked along the bank of the Miluo River, disheveled and emaciated. A fisherman saw him and asked:         Aren't you His Excellency the minister? What has laid you so low? Qu Yuan replied:         For all the world is muddy and I alone am clean; for all men are drunk and I alone am sober -- it is for this that I was exiled. The fisherman said,         A sage does not stay apart and aloof, but adapts to his environment.         If all the world is muddy, why not beat up the mud and stir up waves?         If all men are drunk, why not lap at their lees and drink their dregs?         Why get yourself exiled because of your deep thoughts and noble aspirations? Qu Yuan replied,         I have heard that who has rinsed his hair then brushes his cap; who has washed his body then shakes his clothes.         One does not sully his own cleanliness with filthiness.         I would rather jump into the river, bury myself in the bellies of the fishes,         Than suffer my own purity to be covered by the dirt of the vulgar world. Hearing this, the fisherman smiled and began row away, singing as he went:         When the river water runs clear and fleet         It's fit to rinse hat-tassels in.         When the river water's full of murk,         'Twill still suffice to wash my feet. And he went on his way without saying anything more.

Happy Dragon-Boat Festival.

(Click the title to see the original Chinese text)

屈原既放,游于江潭,行吟泽畔,颜色憔悴,形容枯槁。
渔父见而问之曰:"子非三闾大夫与何故至于斯?"
屈原曰:"举世皆浊我独清,众人皆醉我独醒,是以见放。"
渔父曰:"圣人不凝滞于物,而能与世推移。世人皆浊,何不淈其泥而扬其波众人皆醉,何不哺其糟而歠其酾何故深思高举,自令放为?"
屈原曰:"吾闻之,新沐者必弹冠,新浴者必振衣安能以身之察察,受物之汶汶者乎宁赴湘流,葬于江鱼之腹中。安能以皓皓之白,而蒙世俗之尘埃乎!"
渔父莞尔而笑,鼓枻而去,乃歌曰:"沧浪之水清兮,可以濯吾缨沧浪之水浊兮,可以濯吾足。"遂去,不复与言。

Comments

# 1.   

Great story. Thanks for the translation.

pat, July 20, 2009, 2:40p.m.

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